Martyrdom of Physicians

Thanks to Marla for providing excerpts about these physicians associated with Rohatyn from the book "The Martyrdom of Jewish Physicians in Poland during WWII" by Dr. Maria Ciesielska. Thanks to Julian Busgang for the English translation of the Polish text describing the following Rohatyn associated physicians.

Michal GoldEdward GriffelMortitz GrunhautMarkus LewenterMoritz SteinZussman Wachmann


The Main Chamber of Physicians

GOLD, MICHAL (1907-1942), physician general practitioner, born in Zakrzów, district Rohatyn. In the year 1928-34 studied medicine in Prague, in Czechoslovakia and received a medical diploma in 1934. Settled in Rohatyn. During the Soviet occupation, he was a physician in the Jewish outpatient clinic. On February 4,1942, he filled out the questionnaire of the Lwow Medical Chamber. He was killed in March 20, 1942 during the massacre of Jews in Rohatyn. He perished at age 35. He knew Polish, German, Ukrainian and Czech languages. He did not start a family. He does not appear in the listings of physicians from 1936-39.

Source: Questionnaire of the Lwow Chamber of Physicians 14 March 1942 (at the author’s);Wulman Leon & Tenenbaum Jozef, The Martyrdom of Jewish Physicians in Poland, New York 1963, p. 355.

GRIFFEL, EDWARD (1897-1942), physician, neurology, born * Oct. 1897 in Rohatyn. Son of Maurycy, an engineer. Jewish religion (1917), then Roman-Catholic, Polish national. Received his matriculation on July 1, 1915 in the Polish high school in Vienna. Entered immediately the medical department of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow where he passed the first strict examination, and then received permission to take the second and third strict examination in Lwow. He received the medical diploma in 1922 (it has not been established where). Specialized in neurology. He worked for a few years as the second in charge of the Neuro-Psychiatry at General State Hospital in Lwow, and then he became a neurological specialist in the General Insurance in Lwow, as well as in the Lwow Neurological Clinic. He died in 1942 of abscess on the lungs. He passed away at age 45.

Sources: RI 1933/34 position 370; 1836 position 529, 545; 1928 position 305; USL 1939 doctors, p. 69; Corpus studentorum Jagiellonian University, Cracow 2006, Arch. Jagiellonian Univ., p. 537; Herman Enferniusz Polish Neurologues, „Polish Neurology“ 1950, 24, I-4 p. 102.

GRÜNHAUT, MORITZ MAURYCY WOLF (1895-1940), pharmacist, born 12 Feb. 1895 in Bogdanowek, Tarnopol district. Son of Adolf and Berta maiden name Gross. Studied pharmacy at the Jan Kazimierz University in Lwow, where he received the Master’s diploma in pharmacy in 1921. In 1921, took part in the war. Second Lieutenant. Co-owner and and manager of the Z. Pineles Pharmacy in Bursztyn, district Rohatyn, but the listing of pharmacists from 1933/34 through 1939 show him in Cracow, where in 1933 he worked in the pharmacy “Pod Murzynem” [Under a Negro] at 14 Krakowska Street. It can be assumed that in 1939 he was mobilized into the army. Under unkown conditions, iIn September 1939 he was taken into Soviet captivity and deported to the camp in Kozielsk. He is included on the list of NKVD prisoners of that camp no. 059/1. Position 83 from May 1940, personal acts no. 3465. Deported to the Katyn Forest, he was murdered there. He was not identified at the 1943 exhumation. He was married to Roza Brenzenhauer, and had two sons: Adolf and Bernard.

Sources: RI. 1933/34 rubr. 301; 1936 rubr 443; USL 1939 fimn., s. 25; Krysia Kurski Tadeusz, Materiały do historii wojska polskiego, London 1982, z. 3, s. 29, poz. 3044; Tocholski Jedrzej Mord w Katyniu. Warszawa 1991, PAX, s. 114, 719; Kucharski Sławoj, Majewski Jan Powstająco nekropolia w Katyniu. AHFM 2000, z. 64, s. 3-4, s. 173; Pusiarski Tadeusz, Zdrojewski Stanisław Aptekarze w Gołgocie WrocławkaPeplin 2002, Bernardinum s. 214-5; Księga pochowywanych żołnierzy polskich Pruszkow 1996, Ajars, s. 133 (Gruenhut), Katyń Księga Cmentarza, Warszawa 2000, Rada Ochrony Pamięci Walki i Męczeństwa, s. 189.

LEWENTER MARKUS HIRSZ (1906-1940), pharmacist, born 12.VII.1906 in Rohatyn. Son of Alter (Antoni) and Malka Ruchla maiden name Horowitz (in another document there is an entry that the maiden name Pinkas). Jewish religion. Since 1919, attended the Public High School named for Piotr Skarga in Rohatyn, where on June 8, 1927, he received the matriculation certificate No. 16. He studied pharmacy in the Czech Prague for four semesters, but in 1933 transferred to Jan Kazimierz University in Lwow, where he received the Master’s of Pharmacology degree certificate no. 103. In the years 1928-29, he was in the Officers Infantry Reserve School, and in 1931 and 1932 in the military exercises in Cieszyn. A different document states that he fulfilled his military service in 1928-29 in the Medical Officers‘ School no. 5 in Cieszyn from August 1, 1928 to May 30, 1929, and then in a military unit. In his evaluation it was written: Willing, calm, mature character, dilligent at work, very good in attending to duty. Treats service seriously. Good attitude, good mobility, physically healthy, good pronunciation. Very astute and intelligent. Underwent training in 1922 and also 1935 in the 51st infantry regiment. In his evaluation after the exercises it was entered: Character with very positive qualities, level-headed and composed, serious. Sense of responsibility and work ambition very great, solid in service, showed the best desires. Friendly, tactful, loyal. Resilient to hardships, physically able, good posture and pronounciation. Intelligent, reasons logically, good memory. Reaches decisions quickly and correctly. Received nomination to second lieutenant 1 January 1932., then was promoted to infantry reserve lieutenant. The 1939 list of pharmacists shows him in Tarnów. Probably was mobilized to the army in 1939. Became Soviet prisoner under unknown circumstances and was deported to the camp in Kozielsk. Is mentioned on the list of the NKWD prisoners of that camp, no. 015/1 from 10.IV. 1940, position 39, personal folder No. 3775. Deported to the Katyń Forest where he was murdered. Perished at age 33. Buried in a savage grave. At the exhumation in 1943 was identified at the position PCK (AM) 3415. His univerity diploma, personal identification card and certificate were found by the body.

Sources: USI. 1939, fam. s. 46; akta CAW AP 12 2473; Kryska Karski Tadeusz Materiały do historii woska polskiego z. 7. Londyn, 1983, p. 10. Poz. 5871; Moszyński Adam Lista Katyńska, Warszawa 1989, Omnipress, p. 111; Tuchalski Jędrzej, Mord w Katyniu, Warszawa 1991, PAX, p. 155, 620; index represjonowanych L 1, Rozstrzelani w Katyniu, Warszawa 1995, Ośrodek Karta, p. 137, Pusiarski Tadeusz, Zdrojewski Stanisław Aptekarze w Gołgocie Wschodu. Pelplin 1992, Bernardinum. p. 2304; Meirtchak Benjamin Żydzi–żołnierze wojsk polskich. Warszawa 2001, Bellona p. 120; Katyń, Księga Cmentarna, Warszawa 2000, Bellona, Rada Ochrony Pamięci Walki Męczeństwa, p. 344; informacje pisemne Janiny Ziemian (u autora)

LEWICKI IZYDOR (1890–?), physician, internist, neurologue, born Dec. 12, 1890 in Konin. Son of Perec and Berta maiden name Rubinsztajn. Jewish religion, Polish nationality. At the age of 7 years, transferred to the elementary school in Lodzd. During that period, his father was in the United States and his uncle, a physician, supervised Izydor‘s upbringing. At the age of 11, he traveled to join his father in New York, where he attended school. At the age of 14, he lost his father and returned with his mother and brother to the country (Poland). He continued his studies and also started to study playing piano in a sschool of music. During the Russian-Japanese war, the family moved to Warsaw, where he continued private education, at the same time attending a school of music.

STEIN MORITZ MAURYCY (1865– ? ), general practitioner, born 22.X.1865 in Lacek Wielki (Szarecki reports in Brody). Received matriculation on 20.IX.1888. In the years 1888–97 studied medicine at the University of Warsaw, where he received the MD diploma on 20.XII.1897. He served in the Austrian Army. In September 1898 he settled in Lwów, but the next year transferred to Rohatyn. The register of physicians shows him there still in 1933/34; he is not listed in the subsequent registers. Until the outbreak of World War I, he conducted only a private practice. In the interwar period, he was a municipal physician and a physician for the Social Insurance. After the outbreak of the Second World War, he moved to Lwów. In filling out the form, he reported that he was a volunteer lieutenant (probably from the First World War). He filled out the form of the Lwów Health Department on 11.III.1942. This is the last information about him.

Sources: RL 1933/34, position 63; Hanek, Michał Lekarze polscy wychowankowie Uniwersytetu Wiedeńskiego AHFM 1896, 49, 4, p. 503; Brzeziński, Tadeusz Polskie przepynacje po dyplomy lekarskie, Warszawa 1999, Retro ARI, p. 471; Szarejko Paul: Słownik lekarzy polskich XIX wieku, vol. 4, Warszawa 1997. Semper, p. 366; questionnaire Lwów Health Department (at the author); Wajs Symcha Wypisy z akt Izby Zdrowia Lwowskiej (Xerox copy at the author) questionnaire Lwów Health Department (at the author).

WACHMANN ZUSSMAN (1910–1943), general practitioner, born 5.VII.1910 in Rohatyn. Religion of Moses, grandparents of Jewish ethnicity. Studied medecine in the years 1926-32 in the German University in Prague (Czechoslovakia), later in Padua (Italy), where he received the medical diploma in 1935. Settled in Tarnopol. Duringthe war, he was physician at the Polytechnic. He filled out the questionnaire of the Lwów Chamber of Health for the years 1940-1942 (undated). The Germans deported him to the labor camp in Kamionka. That is the latest news about him. Perished at age about 32. Had a wife, maiden of the name Rappaport and one child. He knew the languages: Polish, German, and Ukrainian.

Sources: Wajs Symcha Excerpts from the acts of the Lwów Chamber of Health (Xero at the author’s), the questionnaire of the Lwów Board of Health (questionnaire at the author’s), Wulman Leon & Tenenbaum Józef, The Martyrdom of Jewish Physicians in Poland, New York 1963, p. 480.

Jewishgen's database of Polish Martyred Physicians.
Jewishgen's database comes from the book "The Martyrdom of Jewish Physicians in Poland" by Louis Falstein. A search on this database for the town of Rohatyn yields the following physicians:
Joel BlumenreichMichael GoldChaja KreislerBernard ManhardtLeon PawligierLina SchumerBernard WistreichZygmunt WistreichZygmunt Zehner